Wikipedia

relaxingmassage, massage, backmassage, boddymassage, stressmassage, howtomassage, partnermassage

For the Chinese novel by Bi Feiyu, see
Massage (novel)

“Massagist” redirects here. For the film, see
Massagist (film)


Massage

is to work and act on the body with

pressure

. Massage techniques are commonly applied with hands, fingers,

elbows

,

knees

,

forearms

, feet, or a device. The purpose of massage is generally for the treatment of body stress or pain. People who are professionally trained to give massages were traditionally known as

masseurs

or

masseuses

, but the term

massage therapist

has been promoted.

In professional settings, clients are treated while lying on a

massage table

, sitting in a

massage chair

, or lying on a mat on the floor. In amateur settings, a general purpose surface like a bed or the floor is more common. Aquatic massage and bodywork is performed with recipients submersed or floating in a warm-water therapy pool.

Etymology

[


edit

]

The word comes from the French

massage

“friction of kneading”, or from the Arabic word

massa

meaning “to touch, feel” or from

Latin



massa


meaning “mass, dough”,


[1]


[2]

from the

Greek

verb

μάσσω

(

massō

) “to handle, touch, to work with the hands, to knead dough”.


[3]

In distinction the ancient

Greek

word for massage was


anatripsis


,


[4]

and the Latin was


frictio


.

History

[


edit

]

Ancient and medieval times

[


edit

]

Archaeological evidence of massage has been found in many ancient civilizations including

China

,

India

,

Japan

,

Korea

,

Egypt

,

Rome

,

Greece

, and

Mesopotamia

.

BC 2330: The Tomb of Akmanthor


[5]

(also known as “The Tomb of the Physician”) in

Saqqara

, Egypt depicts two men having work done on their feet and hands, presumably massage.



BC 722-481:


Huangdi Neijing


is composed during the Chinese

Spring and Autumn period

(the beginning of recorded history). The Nei-jing is a compilation of medical knowledge known up to that date, and is the foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Massage is referred to in 30 different chapters of the Nei Jing. It specifies the use of different massage techniques and how they should be used in the treatment of specific ailments, and injuries. Also known as “The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Canon”, the text refers to previous medical knowledge from the time of the

Yellow Emperor

(approx 2700 BC), misleading some into believing the text itself was written during the time of the Yellow Emperor (which would predate written history).


[6]


[7]

BC 700

Bian Que

, the earliest known Chinese physician uses massage in medical practice.


[8]

BC 500 Jīvaka Komarabhācca, also known as Shivago Komarpaj, the founder of

Traditional Thai massage

(Nuad Boran) and Thai medicine.

[

citation needed



]

According to the Pāli

Buddhist

Canon, Jivaka was

Shakyamuni Buddha

‘s physician.

[

citation needed



]

He codified a healing system that combines

acupressure

,

reflexology

, and assisted

yoga

postures.

[

citation needed



]

Traditional Thai massage is generally based on a combination of Indian and

Chinese

traditions of medicine. Jivaka is known today as “Father Doctor” in

Thailand

.

[

citation needed



]

BC 493: A possible biblical reference documents daily “treatments” with oil of

myrrh

as a part of the beauty regimen of the wives of Xerxes (

Esther

, 2:12).


[9]

BC 460:

Hippocrates

wrote “The physician must be experienced in many things, but assuredly in rubbing”.

[

citation needed



]

BC 300

Charaka Samhita

believed to be the oldest of the three ancient treatises of

Ayurvedic

medicine, including massage.

Sanskrit

records indicate that massage had been practiced in India long before the beginning of recorded history.


[10]

AD 581:

Dr Sun Si Miao

introduces ten new massage techniques and systematized the treatment of childhood diseases using massage therapy.

[

citation needed



]

AD 581: China establishes a department of massage therapy within the Office of Imperial Physicians.

Middle-Ages: Medical knowledge, including that of massage, made its way from Rome to Persia in the Middle Ages.

[

citation needed



]

Many of Galen’s manuscripts, for instance, were collected and translated by Hunayn ibn Ishaq in the 9th century. Later in the 11th century copies were translated back into Latin, and again in the 15th and 16th centuries, when they helped enlighten European scholars as to the achievements of the Ancient Greeks. This renewal of the Galenic tradition during the Renaissance played a very important part in the rise of modern science.

One of the greatest Persian medics was

Avicenna

, also known as Ibn Sina, who lived from 980AD to 1037AD. His works included a comprehensive collection and systematisation of the fragmentary and unorganised Greco-Roman medical literature that had been translated Arabic by that time, augmented by notes from his own experiences. One of his books,

Al-Qānūn fī aṭ-Ṭibb

(The Canon of Medicine) has been called the most famous single book in the history of medicine in both East and West. Avicenna excelled in the logical assessment of conditions and comparison of symptoms and took special note of analgesics and their proper use as well as other methods of relieving pain, including massage.

AD 1150: Evidence of massage abortion, involving the application of pressure to the pregnant

abdomen

, can be found in one of the

bas reliefs

decorating the temple of

Angkor Wat

in

Cambodia

. It depicts a

demon

performing such an abortion upon a woman who has been sent to the

underworld

. This is the oldest known visual representation of abortion.


[11]

AD 1776:

Jean Joseph Marie Amiot

, and

Pierre-Martial Cibot

, French missionaries in China translate summaries of

Huangdi Neijing

, including a list of medical plants, exercises and elaborate massage techniques, into the French language, thereby introducing Europe to the highly developed Chinese system of medicine, medical-gymnastics, and medical-massage.


[7]

AD 1776

Pehr Henrik Ling

, a Swedish physical therapist, and teacher of medical-gymnastics is born. Ling has often been erroneously credited for having invented “Classic Massage” aka “Swedish Massage”, and has been called the “Father of Massage”.


[12]

AD 1779: Frenchman

Pierre-Martial Cibot

publishes ‘Notice du Cong-fou des Bonzes Tao-see’ also known as “The Cong-Fou of the Tao-Tse”, a French language summary of medical techniques used by Taoist priests. According to Joseph Needhan, Cibot’s work “was intended to present the physicists and physicians of Europe with a sketch of a system of medical gymnastics which they might like to adopt—or if they found it at fault they might be stimulated to invent something better. This work has long been regarded as of cardinal importance in the history of physiotherapy because it almost certainly influenced the Swedish founder of the modern phase of the art, Per Hendrik Ling. Cibot had studied at least one Chinese book, but also got much from a Christian neophyte who had become expert in the subject before his conversion.”


[13]

AD 1813 The Royal Gymnastic Central Institute for the training of gymnastic instructors was opened in Stockholm, Sweden, with

Pehr Henrik Ling

appointed as principal. Ling developed what he called the “Swedish Movement Cure.” Ling died in 1839, having previously named his pupils as the repositories of his teaching. Ling and his assistants left little proper written account of their methods.


[7]


[14]


[15]

AD 1878: Dutch massage practitioner Johan Georg Mezger applies French terms to name five basic massage techniques,


[12]

and coins the phrase “Swedish massage system”. These techniques are still known by their French names (effleurage (long, gliding strokes), petrissage (lifting and kneading the muscles), friction (firm, deep, circular rubbing movements), tapotement (brisk tapping or percussive movements), and vibration (rapidly shaking or vibrating specific muscles)).

Modern times

[


edit

]



Massage room in Shanghai, China



A woman gets a massage.



Marathon runners receiving massages at the 2004 ING Taipei International Marathon

China

[


edit

]

Massage has developed continuously in China for over 5000 years.

[

citation needed



]

Western ideas are considered within the traditional framework. It is widely practiced and taught in hospital and medical schools and is an essential part of health maintenance and primary healthcare.

[

medical citation needed



]

United States

[


edit

]

Massage started to become popular in the United States in the middle part of the 19th century


[9]

and was introduced by two

New York


physicians

based on

Per Henrik Ling

‘s techniques developed in

Sweden

.

[

citation needed



]

During the 1930s and 1940s massage’s influence decreased as a result of medical advancements of the time, while in the 1970s massage’s influence grew once again with a notable rise among athletes.


[9]

Until the 1970s,

nurses

used massage to reduce pain and aid sleep.


[16]

The massage therapy industry is continuously increasing. In 2009, U.S. consumers spent between $4 and $6 billion on visits to massage therapists.


[17]

In 2015, research estimates that massage therapy was a $12.1 billion industry.


[18]

United Kingdom

[


edit

]

Massage is popular in the United Kingdom today and gaining in popularity.

[

citation needed



]

There are many private practitioners working from their own premises as well as those who operate from commercial venues.

Sports, business and organizations

[


edit

]

Massage developed alongside athletics in both

Ancient China

and

Ancient Greece

.

Taoist

priests developed massage in concert with their

Kung Fu


gymnastic

movements, while

Ancient Greek Olympians

used a specific type of trainer (“aleiptes”)


[19]

who would rub their muscles with oil.

Pehr Ling’s

introduction to massage also came about directly as a result of his study of gymnastic movements.

The

1984 Summer Olympics

in

Los Angeles

was the first time that massage therapy was televised as it was being performed on the athletes. And then, during the

1996 Summer Olympics

in

Atlanta

massage therapy was finally offered as a core medical service to the US Olympic Team.


[20]

Massage has been employed by businesses and organizations such as the

U.S. Department of Justice

,

Boeing

and

Reebok

.


[21]

Notable athletes such as

Michael Jordan

and

LeBron James

have personal massage therapists that at times even travel with them.

Types and methods

[


edit

]

Active Release Techniques

[


edit

]

Active Release Techniques (ART) is a form of deep tissue manipulation patented by Dr. P. Michael Leahy in which specified techniques are used to release what are presumed to be soft tissue adhesions.


[22]

:

578

The ART curriculum also includes various nerve slide, or flossing, protocols and adjacent muscle interface work.

Acupressure

[


edit

]


Acupressure

[from Latin acus “needle” (see acuity) + pressure (n.)


[23]

] is an

alternative medicine

technique similar in principle to

acupuncture

. It is based on the concept of life energy which flows through “meridians” in the body. In treatment, physical pressure is applied to

acupuncture points

with the aim of clearing blockages in those meridians. Pressure may be applied by fingers, palm, elbow, toes or with various devices.

Some medical studies have suggested that acupressure may be effective at helping manage nausea and vomiting, for helping lower back pain, tension headaches, stomach ache, among other things, although such studies have been found to have a high likelihood of bias.


[24]

Aquatic bodywork

[


edit

]

Aquatic bodywork comprises a diverse set of massage and bodywork forms performed in water. This includes land-based forms performed in water (e.g., Aquatic Craniosacral Therapy, Aquatic Myofascial Release Therapy, etc.), as well as forms specific to warm water pools (e.g., Aquatic Integration, Dolphin Dance, Healing Dance, Jahara technique, WaterDance,

Watsu

).


[25]

Ashiatsu

[


edit

]

In ashiatsu, the practitioner uses their feet to deliver treatment. The name comes from the Japanese,

ashi

for foot and

atsu

for pressure.


[26]

This technique typically uses the heel, sesamoid, arch and/or whole plantar surface of foot, and offers large compression, tension and shear forces with less pressure than an elbow, and is ideal for large muscles, such as in thigh, or for long-duration upper trapezius compressions.


[27]

Other manual therapy techniques using the feet to provide treatment include Keralite, Barefoot

Lomi Lomi

,

Chavutti Thirumal

.

Ayurvedic massage

[


edit

]

Ayurvedic Massage known as

Abhyangam

in Sanskrit is one of the most common and important Ayurvedic therapies. According to the Ayurvedic Classics

Abhayngam

is an important dincharya (Daily Regimen) that is needed for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The massage technique used during Ayurvedic Massage is known to stimulate the lymphatic system to expel the toxins out from the body. The Ayurvedic Massage also stimulates production of lymphocytes which play a vital role in maintaining the immunity in human body. Thus regular Ayurvedic Massage can lead to better immunity and also help in body de-toxification. The other benefits of regular Ayurvedic Massage include pain relief, reduction of fatigue, prevention of ageing and bestowing longevity.


[28]


[29]

Burmese Massage

[


edit

]




Traditional Burmese Foot Massage at Sapel in
Yangon

Known in

Myanmar

as Yoe Yar Nhake Nal Chin, meaning “traditional massage”, Burmese massage has its ancient origins from Thai, Chinese and Indian medicine. Currently, Burmese massage also includes the use local natural ingredients such as

Thanaka

, which helps to promote smooth skin and prevents sunburn.

Burmese massage is a full body massage technique that starts from head to toes, drawing on

acupuncture

,

reflexology

, and kneading. Signature massage strokes include

acupressure

using the elbows, quick gentle knocking of acupressure points, and slow kneading of tight muscles. The massage is aimed to improve blood circulation and quality of sleep, while at the same time help to promote better skin quality.

Bio-mechanical stimulation (BMS) massage

[


edit

]

Biomechanical stimulation (BMS) is a term generally used for localised biomechanical oscillation methods, whereby local muscle groups are stimulated directly or via the associated tendons by means of special hand held mechanical vibration devices. Biomechanical oscillation therapy and training is offered in a variety of areas such as competitive sports,


[30]

fitness, rehabilitation,


[31]

medicine,


[32]

prevention, beauty) and used to improve performance of the muscles and to improve coordination and balance. It is often used in the

Myofascial trigger point

therapy concept to invoke reciprocal inhibition within the musculoskeletal system. Beneficial effects from this type of stimulation have been found to exist, the efficacy of the BMS Matrix therapy was proven in an independent study.


[33]

carried out by

TÜV-Süd

which was commissioned by German health insurer

BKK Gesundheit.

Biodynamic massage

[


edit

]


Biodynamic massage

was created by

Gerda Boyesen

as part of Biodynamic Psychotherapy. Practised as a stand-alone therapy, it is a combination of physical and energy work and also uses a stethoscope to hear the peristalsis.


[34]


[35]

Craniosacral therapy

[


edit

]

Craniosacral therapy (CST) is a gentle approach that releases tensions deep in the body by applying light touch to the skull, face, spine, and pelvis.


[36]

While various types of reflexology related massage styles focus on the

feet

, massage of (usually) the soles of the feet is often performed purely for relaxation or recreation. It is believed there are some specific points on the feet that correspond to different organs in the body. Stimulation of these points during foot massage can cause significant reduction in pain. Studies also suggest that foot reflexology massage can reduce fatigue and promote better sleep.


[37]

Lomilomi and indigenous massage of Oceania

[


edit

]


Lomilomi

is the traditional massage of

Hawaii

. As an indigenous practice, it varies by island and by family. The word

lomilomi

also is used for massage in

Samoa

and East Futuna. In Samoa, it is also known as

lolomi

and

milimili

. In East Futuna, it is also called

milimili, fakasolosolo, amoamo, lusilusi, kinikini, fai’ua.

The

Māori

call it

roromi

and

mirimiri

. In

Tonga

massage is

fotofota, tolotolo,

and

amoamo.

In

Tahiti

it is

rumirumi.

On

Nanumea

in

Tuvalu

, massage is known as

popo

, pressure application is

kukumi

, and heat application is

tutu

. Massage has also been documented in

Tikopia

in the

Solomon Islands

, in

Rarotonga

and in

Pukapuka

in

Western Samoa

.


[38]

Lymphatic drainage

[


edit

]

Manual lymphatic drainage is a technique used to gently work and stimulate the lymphatic system, to assist in reduction of localized swelling. The

lymphatic system

is a network of slow moving vessels in the body that carries cellular waste toward the heart, to be filtered and removed.

Lymph

also carries

lymphocytes

, and other

immune system

agents. Manual lymphatic drainage claims to improve waste removal and immune function.


[39]


[40]


[41]

Medical massage

[


edit

]

Medical Massage is a controversial term in the massage profession.


[42]

Many use it to describe a specific technique. Others use it to describe a general category of massage and many methods such as deep tissue massage, myofascial release and triggerpoint therapy as well as osteopathic techniques,

cranial-sacral techniques

and many more can be used to work with various medical conditions.


[43]

Massage used in the medical field includes

decongestive therapy

used for

lymphedema


[9]

which can be used in conjunction with the treatment of

breast cancer

. Light massage is also used in pain management and palliative care. Carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for differentiating

supraventricular tachycardia

(SVT) from

ventricular tachycardia

. It, like the

valsalva maneuver

, is a therapy for SVT.


[44]

However, it is less effective than management of SVT with medications.


[45]

A 2004 systematic review found single applications of massage therapy “reduced state anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate but not negative mood, immediate assessment of pain, and cortisol level”, while “multiple applications reduced delayed assessment of pain”, and found improvements in anxiety and depression similar to effects of psychotherapy.


[46]

A subsequent systematic review published in 2008 found that there is little evidence supporting the use of massage therapy for depression in high quality studies from

randomized controlled trials

.


[47]

Myofascial release

[


edit

]


Myofascial release

refers to the manual massage technique that claims to release adhered

fascia

and

muscles

with the goal of eliminating

pain

, increasing

range of motion

and

equilibrioception

. Myofascial release usually involves applying shear compression or tension in various directions, cross fiber friction or by skin rolling.


[48]

Reflexology

[


edit

]


Reflexology

also known as “zone therapy”, is an

alternative medicine

involving

application of pressure

to the feet and hands with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on a

pseudoscientific


[49]

system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body.


[50]

Shiatsu

[


edit

]


Shiatsu

(指圧) (

shi

meaning finger and

atsu

meaning pressure) is a type of

alternative medicine

consisting of the fingers and palm pressure, stretches, and other massage techniques. There is no convincing data available to suggest that shiatsu is an effective treatment for any medical condition.


[51]



A hot stone massage



Massage trainer teaches sports students how to do massage (Leipzig, German Democratic Republic)

Structural Integration

[


edit

]


Structural Integration

‘s aim is to unwind the strain patterns residing in the body’s myofascial system, restoring it to its natural balance, alignment, length, and ease. This is accomplished by deep, slow, fascial and myofascial manipulation, coupled with movement re-education. Various brands of Structural Integration are

Rolfing

, Hellerwork, Guild for Structural Integration, Aston Patterning,


[7]

Soma,


[52]

and Kinesis Myofascial Integration.


[53]

Swedish massage

[


edit

]

The most widely recognized and commonly used category of massage is the Swedish massage. The Swedish massage techniques vary from light to vigorous.


[54]

Swedish massage uses five styles of strokes. The five basic strokes are

effleurage

(sliding or gliding),

petrissage

(kneading),

tapotement

(rhythmic tapping), friction (cross fiber or with the fibers) and vibration/shaking.


[55]

Swedish massage has shown to be helpful in reducing pain,

joint stiffness

, and improving function in patients with

osteoarthritis

of the knee over a period of eight weeks.


[56]

The development of Swedish massage is often inaccurately credited to

Per Henrik Ling

, though the

Dutch

practitioner

Johann Georg Mezger

applied the French terms to name the basic strokes.


[57]

The term “Swedish” massage is actually only recognized in English and Dutch speaking countries, and in Hungary. Elsewhere the style is referred to as “classic massage”.

Clinical studies report that Swedish Massage can effectively reduce low back pain and the effectiveness can last for as long as 15 weeks. One study reported that Swedish Massage caused reduction in salivary cortisol indicating its role in management of stress and improvement in mood.


[58]


[59]



Thai massage

[


edit

]

Known in Thailand as นวดแผนโบราณ (

Nuat phaen boran,

IPA:


[nûət pʰɛ́ːn boːraːn]

), meaning “ancient/traditional massage”, traditional Thai massage (Nuad Boran) is generally based on a combination of Indian and Chinese traditions of medicine.


Thai massage

– or Nuat Thai – combines both physical and energetic aspects. It is a deep, full-body massage progressing from the feet up, and focusing on sen or energy lines throughout the body, with the aim of clearing blockages in these lines, and thus stimulating the flow of blood and lymph throughout the body. It draws on

yoga

,

acupressure

and

reflexology

.

Thai Massage is a popular massage therapy that is used for management of conditions such as musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. Thai Massage involves a number of stretching movements that improve body flexibility, joint movement and also improve blood circulation throughout the body. In one study scientists found that Thai Massage showed comparable efficacy as the painkiller ibuprofen in reduction of joint pain caused by osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.


[60]

Traditional Chinese massage

[


edit

]

Massage of

Chinese Medicine

is known as An Mo (按摩, pressing and rubbing) or

Qigong

Massage, an

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